This eye toxicity limits long-term use of the drugs. The risk of toxicity is low for individuals without complicating conditions during the first 5 years of treatment using less than 6.5 mg/kg/day of hydroxychloroquine or 3 mg/kg/day of chloroquine, and/or cumulative doses of less than 1000 gram and 460 gram (total dose), respectively. Aralene r34 Contraindications to plaquenil How about taking half of plaquenil To study the incidences of and risk factors for chloroquine CQ and hydroxychloroquine HCQ retinopathy in Thai rheumatologic patients. A retrospective cohort study of 234 rheumatologic patients receiving either CQ or HCQ was conducted. Patients were. Abstract. Background The American Academy of Ophthalmology recommendations on screening for chloroquine CQ and hydroxychloroquine HCQ retinopathy are revised in light of new information about the prevalence of toxicity, risk factors, fundus distribution, and effectiveness of screening tools. Revised Recommendations on Screening for Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine Retinopathy. It is important to be aware of risk factors including daily dose, cumulative dose. M. F. Marmor, R. E. Carr, M. Easterbook, et al. American Academy of OphthalmologyRecommendations on screening for chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine retinopathy. The earliest signs of toxicity include bilateral paracentral visual field changes (best detected with a red test object) and a subtle granular depigmentation of the paracentral RPE. Some physicians suggest that lean body weight is more accurate when calculating daily dosage. Hydroxychloroquine retinopathy risk factors Hydroxychloroquine toxicity - EyeWiki, Recommendations on Screening for Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine. Hydroxychloroquine and glaucomaPlaquenil dosage for sjogren& 39 Other risk factors include Obesity. Duration of use cumulative dose. Renal or hepatic functional impairment. Compromised kidney and/or liver function can lead to increased accumulation of hydroxychloroquine in the tissues. Age over 60 years. Preexisting retinal disease. Concurrent tamoxifen. Plaquenil Risk Calculators. Revised Recommendations on Screening for Chloroquine and.. Risk Factors for Hydroxychloroquine and Chloroquine.. Our results show that the prevalence of hydroxychloroquine retinopathy is much higher than previously recognized and depends on risk factors such as daily dose, duration of use, and kidney disease. The results also suggest the need to revise the way that dosage is calculated to minimize risk. Background The American Academy of Ophthalmology recommendations on screening for chloroquine CQ and hydroxychloroquine HCQ retinopathy are revised in light of new information about the prevalence of toxicity, risk factors, fundus distribution, and effectiveness of screening tools. Risk factors for retinopathy normal daily doses range 75-300mg toxicity has been reported with doses of 1200 to 2400 mg/day for 1 to 2 years. Mechanism - Inhibition of retinal enzymes and phototoxicity have been suggested as possible causes of the retinal degeneration.